The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus. A special magnifying device with a light, called a colposcope, can be used to visually examine the cervix and vagina.
Female Reproductive Organs
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Colposcopy is usually done when a: Pap test
Human papillomavirus (HPV) test
is positive for certain subtypes that place you at an increased risk for developing cancer
This procedure can be used to:
or precancerous changes
Give more information about abnormal cells found on a pap smear
Find the location where a tissue
should be done
Monitor treatment of abnormalities of the cervixAllow a visual exam of the cervix, vaginal walls, or vulva
Complications are rare. But, no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have colposcopy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications. These may include: BleedingInfectionDiscomfort
In the 24 hours before the procedure, your doctor may advise you to avoid: Having sexual intercourseUsing medication or creams in your vagina
Usually no anesthesia is needed. In certain cases, the cervix may be numbed with a local anesthetic.
A device called a speculum will be inserted into the vagina. The speculum will gently spread apart the vaginal walls. The inside of the vagina and the cervix will be easier to see. The colposcope will be placed at the opening of the vagina. Then, the cervix will be wiped with a solution. The solution will make abnormal areas easier to see. The cervix and vagina will be examined closely with the colposcope. A long tool may be used to take a sample of tissue from the cervix or vaginal wall.
This procedure is usually painless. If a biopsy is taken, you may feel a slight pinch and mild cramping.
When you return home after the procedure, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery if you had a biopsy done: You may need to use a sanitary pad for a few days.Do not put anything into your vagina for at least a week.Do not use tampons or have sex until your doctor says it is okay.
Results from a biopsy should be ready in about one week. The results will determine whether you need more testing or treatment.
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as: Heavy bleedingFever, chillsSevere painBad-smelling vaginal discharge
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Practice Bulletin No. 140: management of abnormal cervical cancer screening test results and cervical cancer precursors. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(6):1338-1367.
Cervical cancer—colposcopy. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/cervical-cancer/diagnosis-tests/colposcopy.html. Updated August 2010. Accessed October 30, 2014.
Colposcopy. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at:
http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq135.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20121219T1514556583. Accessed October 30, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Karli-Rae Kerrschneider, RN
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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