Placental abruption occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus before the fetus is delivered. The placenta is the organ that provides nourishment for the fetus while it is still in the uterus. In a healthy pregnancy, the placenta remains attached to the uterine wall until after the fetus is delivered.
Some form of the condition affects about one in every 150 births. In very severe forms, placental abruption can cause death to the fetus. This occurs less commonly. Death of the mother from placental abruption is very rare.
Placental abruption can cause: Premature deliveryFetal anemiaLow birth weightSignificant blood loss for the motherFetal death
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The direct cause of placental abruption is not clearly understood. It may be a combination of several events. These may include: Impaired formation and structure of the placentaLow oxygen levels inside the uterusRupture of maternal artery or vein which causes bleeding behind the placental wallInjury to the abdomen from an accident or a fallSudden decrease in the volume of the uterus, from significant loss of amniotic fluid or from
the delivery of a first twin
Factors that may increase your chance of placental abruption: Previous placental abruption in a prior pregnancy
High blood pressure
Pregnancy during older ageMultiple previous deliveriesExcessively distended uterusSmoking
Drug misuse, especially cocaine
In the early stages, you may not have symptoms.
When symptoms occur, they may include: Vaginal bleedingAbdominal painBack painRapid contractionsSoreness in the uterusFeeling faintBaby moving less
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A pelvic exam will also be done to examine your reproductive organs.
Tests may include: UltrasoundBlood coagulation profile to determine how long it takes for your blood to clot
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Fluids may be given by IV to replace lost fluids.
may also be given to replace lost blood supply.
The mother and fetus will be carefully monitored for signs of distress or
shock, including abnormal heart rates.
If danger exists for mother or fetus, an emergency
may be done. If both the mother and fetus are at low risk of complications and the fetus is full-term, the mother may
To help reduce your chance of placental abruption: Avoid taking drugs and smoking during pregnancy.Receive proper and regular prenatal care throughout the pregnancy.
Promptly treat conditions, such as
high blood pressure.
Bleeding in pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption. Lucile-Packard Children's Hospital website.
Accessed June 5, 2013.
Neilson JP. Interventions for treating placental abruption.
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Placental abruption. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 14, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2013.
Placental abruption: Abruptio placentae. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at:
http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/placental-abruption. Updated November 2006. Accessed June 5, 2013.
Tikkanen M. Etiology, clinical manifestations, and prediction of placental abruption.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(6):732-740.
Last reviewed May 2015 by Andrea Chisholm
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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