This is a procedure to obtain a sample of liver tissue.
Biopsies of the liver are usually done to evaluate: Abnormal blood tests such as elevated liver enzymes, bilirubin, copper, or iron in the bloodAn enlarged liverThe severity of liver diseasesThe progress of therapy for liver diseasesA liver mass
The liver after a
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like: PainBleedingInfectionPerforation of the gallbladder or intestinesPuncture of the lung
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include: SmokingChronic diseaseAlcohol use disorderMalnutrition
Your doctor may do the following: Physical examBlood testsUltrasound
Before your biopsy: Avoid eating or drinking for 8-12 hours.
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
Arrange for someone to drive you home after the biopsy.
If local anesthesia is used, then only the area that is being operated on is numbed. It is given as an injection and may also be given with a sedative.
There are different techniques used to do a liver biopsy, including: Conventional liver biopsyLaparoscopic liver biopsy—done when the biopsy needs to be taken from a specific area of the liverTransvenous liver biopsy—done if your blood clots poorly or you have a lot of fluid in your abdomen
You will lie on your back with your right hand behind your head. An
may be used to help guide the placement of the needle. The skin will be cleaned. Next, medication will be injected to numb the area. A small incision will be made. You will need to exhale and hold your breath while the needle is inserted. Sometimes, the needle will need to be inserted several times. After the procedure, the area will be bandaged.
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Your doctor will make a tiny incision. A long tool with a camera on the end will be passed into your abdomen in the area of the liver. It will send images of the liver to a TV screen. Additional incisions will be made to pass other tools. These tools will be used to remove samples of the liver.
A tiny flexible tube will be threaded into a vein in your neck or groin. This tube will be threaded all the way into the veins in your liver. A biopsy needle will be passed through the tube to get a biopsy sample.
You will lie on your right side for at least 2 hours.
You will have mild pain or cramping at the biopsy site. You may also have pain in the right shoulder. The pain should last for less than 30 minutes.
Rest and avoid driving for at least 24 hours after the surgery. You may have to restrict certain activities, such as heavy lifting, until your doctor says it is okay to do so. Unless otherwise advised, you can resume your normal diet.
The biopsy results will take 1-4 weeks. You and your doctor will discuss the results.
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the incision siteSevere abdominal pain, nausea, or vomitingLightheadednessSevere shoulder painTrouble breathing, cough, or chest pain
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
Liver biopsy. American Liver Foundation website. Available at:
http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/liverbiopsy. Updated October 4, 2011. Accessed May 29, 2013.
Liver biopsy. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diagnostic-tests/liver-biopsy/Pages/diagnostic-test.aspx. Updated April 23, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2013.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart, I et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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